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Heavy Lift Cargoes

Before beginning a heavy lift operation the officer in charge should make sure that the lift can be carried out in a safe and successful manner. Depending on the load to be lifted, the vessel can be expected to heel over once the lift moves off the fore and aft line. Therefore, heads of departments […]

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Maintenance of Hatch Covers

There can be no doubt that inadequate maintenance is a major cause of many hatch cover defects. The marine environment is a harsh one. Damp salt-laden air, water on deck and dusty, abrasive cargoes all take their toll on a ship’s structure and fittings, which deteriorate rapidly if proper preventive measures are not taken. Yet […]

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Direct Pull (MacGregor) Hatch Cover

Figure 3 shows a direct pull weather deck hatch cover operation. In this diagram, all hatch top wedges and side locking cleats removed and the tracks are seen to be clear. The bull wire and check wire would be shackled to the securing lug of the trailing edge of the hatch top.   Fig. 3 […]

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Steel Coils

Steel coils are normally stowed in a double tier with the bottom coils on athwart ships dunnage and wedged against athwart ships movement, each coil being hard-up against the next (Figures 29 and 30). The objective is to Figure. 29 Secure stowage of steel coils     Figure. 30 Steel coil loading Diamond bulker design […]

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Ship Sweat | Cargo Sweat

Sweat is formed when water vapor in the air condenses out into water droplets once the air is cooled below its dew point. The water droplets may be deposited onto the ship’s structure or onto the cargo. In the former, it is known as ‘ships sweat’ and this may run or subsequently drip onto the […]

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Refrigerated Container

The container sector of the industry is exploring ways to carry increased numbers of reefer units below decks. However, such increase would generate increased temperatures into the cargo space areas. An effective ventilation system would probably aim to retain the hold temperature as close as possible to the outside air temperature or a predetermined temperature […]

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Refrigerated Cargoes

The increase in container and Ro-Ro trades has, to some extent, brought about the demise of the conventional ‘reefer ‘ ship (one that was dedicated to carry refrigerated and chilled cargoes in its main cargo-carrying compartments), the compartments being constructed with insulation to act as very large giant refrigerators. Some of these vessels still operate, […]

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Timber Cargoes

Timber is generally shipped as logs, pit props or sawn packaged timber. The high SF of timber (1.39 m/ton), generally indicates that a ship whose holds are full with forestry products will often not be down to her marks. For this reason an additional heavy cargo like ore is often booked alongside the timber cargo. […]

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Dangerous Goods – Definitions

Auto-ignition temperature – is the lowest temperature at which a substance will start to burn without the aid of an external flame. Spontaneous combustion begins, provided that conditions are right, when auto-ignition temperature is attained.   Carrier – means any person’s organization, or government, undertaking the transport of dangerous goods by any means of transport. […]

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Container Types

There are many container types in operation to suit a variety of trades and merchandize. Sizes also vary and they can be shipped in the following sizes: 8 ft. in width and 8 ft. or 8 ft. 6 inch in height, with lengths of 10, 20, 40 or 45 ft.   Conventional units (general purpose) […]

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