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HULL CLAIMS

General documents & information required: • deck and engine room log books covering the casualty and the repair period; • master’s and/or chief engineer’s detailed report (as appropriate); • relevant letters of protest; • protests and extended protests; • underwriter’s surveyor’s report; • class surveyor’s report; • owners’ superintendent’s report; • receipted accounts for repairs […]

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General Average

• The principle of general average may be said simply to be: “That which has been sacrificed for the benefit of all shall be made good by the contribution of all”. • The object of general average is to ensure that the owner of a vessel or cargo who has incurred an expenditure or suffered […]

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Marine Insurance

Insurance cover of ship owners and managers A ship-owner or ship manager (acting on behalf of the owner) may require marine insurance cover against: actual or constructive total loss of his ship’s hull, machinery and equipment (H&M cover); accidental (particular average) damage to his ship’s hull, machinery and equipment (H&M cover); liability to owners of […]

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Safe ports and berths

An important contractual provision in virtually all time and voyage charter parties is that the vessel may be sent only to safe ports and berths. This requirement will often be expressed in the preamble to the terms of a modern charter party rather than in a separate clause. Charterers usually give an absolute warranty that […]

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BILLS OF LADING

Bill of Lading is a receipt for goods either received (before shipment) or shipped on board. is good evidence of the existence and terms of a contract between the shipper and carrier. (A contract of carriage may exist without issue of a bill of lading, however.) A bill of lading is not a true contract, […]

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TAKING OVER COMMAND

• have ready a check list of “things to do on joining”; • note (from the quayside) the condition of the visible exterior of the vessel, including draught marks, load line, etc.; • note the standard of rigging and maintenance of the accommodation ladder or gangway, and its accessories; • note the standard of maintenance […]

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DUTIES OF FLAG STATES

SHIPS’ COST CLASSIFICATION The three basic ship cost categories are: • capital costs; • voyage costs; • operating or running costs. • Capital costs are fixed costs associated with the ship’s purchase. include pre-delivery costs, loan repayments, interest, leasing charges, initial registration fees, and taxes (sometimes), and any bareboat charter hire payable. are the owner’s […]

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DUTIES OF FLAG STATES

• UNCLOS Article 94 requires the flag State to effectively exercise its jurisdiction and control in administrative, technical and social matters over ships flying its flag (i.e. to exercise “flag State control” over its ships), and to: – maintain a register of ships; – assume jurisdiction under its internal law over each ship flying its […]

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NATURE AND PURPOSES OF ILO

ILO is a specialized agency of the United Nations. Its membership consists of signatory States, of which there are  ILO’s main purpose is to raise world labour standards by building up a code of international law and practice. It forms policies and programmes to help improve working and living conditions, enhance employment opportunities and promote […]

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LINER TRADE

• As a liner, either in a passenger trade or a cargo trade, a ship is operated on one or more fixed routes, with advertised, scheduled sailings. • True passenger liners operating on ocean services were mostly displaced in the 1960s by jet airliners. Today, very few long-haul passenger liners remain, and most passenger ships […]

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