Chapter II – LIABILITY
Liability of the Owner
1. Except as provided in paragraphs 2 and 3, the owner at the time of an incident shall be liable for damage caused by any hazardous and noxious substances in connection with their carriage by sea on board the ship, provided that if an incident consists of a series of occurrences having the same origin the liability shall attach to the owner at the time of the first of such occurrences.
2. No liability shall attach to the owner if the owner proves that:
a. the damage resulted from an act of war, hostilities, civil war, insurrection or a natural phenomenon of an exceptional, inevitable and irresistible character; or
b. the damage was wholly caused by an act or omission done with the intent to cause damage by a third party; or
c. the damage was wholly caused by the negligence or other wrongful act of any Government or other authority responsible for the maintenance of lights or other navigational aids in the exercise of that function; or
d. the failure of the shipper or any other person to furnish information concerning the hazardous and noxious nature of the substances shipped either
i. has caused the damage, wholly or partly; or
ii. has led the owner not to obtain insurance in accordance with article 12;
provided that neither the owner nor its servants or agents knew or ought reasonably to have known of the hazardous and noxious nature of the substances shipped.
3. If the owner proves that the damage resulted wholly or partly either from an act or omission done with intent to cause damage by the person who suffered the damage or from the negligence of that person, the owner may be exonerated wholly or partially from liability to such person.
4. No claim for compensation for damage shall be made against the owner otherwise than in accordance with this Convention.
5. Subject to paragraph 6, no claim for compensation for damage under this Convention or otherwise may be made against:
a. the servants or agents of the owner or the members of the crew;
b. the pilot or any other person who, without being a member of the crew, performs services for the ship;
c. any charterer (howsoever described, including a bareboat charterer), manager or operator of the ship;
d. any person performing salvage operations with the consent of the owner or on the instructions of a competent public authority;
e. any person taking preventive measures; and
f. the servants or agents of persons mentioned in (c), (d) and (e);
unless the damage resulted from their personal act or omission, committed with the intent to cause such damage, or recklessly and with knowledge that such damage would probably result.
6. Nothing in this Convention shall prejudice any existing right of recourse of the owner against any third party, including, but not limited to, the shipper or the receiver of the substance causing the damage, or the persons indicated in paragraph 5.
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